Conditions in English

ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)

ADHD is the overall term and for example, ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) is a form of ADHD.

A person with ADHD is impulsive, hyperactive and has difficulty with attention. As a child, they can be perceived as intense and demanding.

One of the most problematic aspects of ADHD is that it can lead to a feeling of hopelessness that nothing will ever get better, and to an overall “what’s wrong with me” point of view.

Symptoms in people with ADHD:

  • Difficult to control aggressive and impulsive behavior
  • Behavioral issues that can affect relationships
  • Concentration difficulties
  • Forgetfulness and erratic behavior   
  • Hard to sit still and focus - Hyperactivity
  • Read and write difficulties
  • Learning difficulties
  • Problems to regulate emotions - movements, activities,
  • It easily gets to be too much or too little of anything.
  • You are too happy or too angry, or too passive or too active.

People with ADHD (the impulsive/ overactive group) are usually described as extremely likely to act out.

They react to, large and trivial issues but unfortunately often without reflection or consideration.

As with young children, their action is handled by impulses and by external stimuli, rather than from within by considerations, thoughts, plans, and intentions.

The consequence is that these spontaneous impulses/ decisions, without any form of self-control or consideration, carelessness, often get these individuals in trouble. And they are never prepared for the consequences.

They rather try to satisfy their immediate needs than to work, think long-term. This impulsive characteristic becomes even more evident in unstructured situations (like breaks, lunch at school) or in tasks that require a lot of private reflection and where there are no clear instructions (like how long will we do this task), external directives, and rewards.

The motivation is often decisive for whether they can handle a task or not. It is common for them to have difficulties in resisting adversity and/ or obstacles.

Impulsivity can also mean that they have a hard time controlling their feelings and often have emotional tantrums or outbreaks (often 10 on an up to 10 scale). From zero to 100 in a few seconds. It can be difficult to stop and listen to other people, which of course affects the cohabitation and the interaction with others.

ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

A person with ADD can easily be perceived as distracted, silent and shy.

ADD people often turn problems inward, they often blame things on themselves, taking on the blame of others and can easily get a bad conscience after they've had one of their typical outbursts of anger. These can occur at any time. 0 to 100 in three seconds here as well.

The big difference is that ADHD individuals are usually outgoing, while the ADD individuals turn things, including guilt and shame inward.

Symptoms of people with ADD:

  • Sensitive to rowdy and loud environments, don't typically like amusement parks or shopping centers, for example.
  • Daydreams and have difficulty concentrating, often have major attention difficulties.
  • Common issues with sleep problems and have difficulty falling asleep at night when their thoughts and body take over.

Common with different combinations of ASD spectra (Autism Spectrum Disorder).

Attention problems with ADD can come in many different ways.
It may seem that the person doesn't listen to what others say or finds it difficult to understand instructions; can't understand the sequence of things; others find it difficult to get started with tasks and to complete what they have started already.

The difficulties can also make them extremely tired, often without any warning signs. They are often disorganized, seem fragmented and distracted, forget and lose things. They can easily lose their train of thought or interest if someone is giving them or get stuck in what seems to them, irrelevant details and information. This can give the outsider a general impression that looks confused with lack of concentration. They often need short and direct information.

They can be quite easily disturbed by things happening around them; get bored quickly and have a strong tendency to turn their attention away from an ongoing task and seek external stimuli.

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Overview of the Diagnoses

It may seem like a jungle with all these diagnoses.

First, the doctor says that ADHD is completely ’normal’ and then
categorizes these with ’individuals with disabilities’? 

How is that normal? By the way, who decides what is "Normal".

We do NOT use the term disability, or disabled, or functionally impaired.

Here is a brief overview of the different conditions.

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Asperger and Autism fall under the umbrella name, ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder), which, is different degrees of Autism, yet the spectrum with ASD is huge.

Asperger is a milder form of Autism.

Asperger's syndrome falls under this category but is a condition without simultaneous intellectual impediment but affects, among other things, their ability to relate to others and in communication in general. 

Asperger is primarily characterized by difficulties in social communication and interaction, a different perception of sensory impressions, stereotypical behaviors and/ or narrow, limited interests, which usually develops during early childhood.

People with ASD, with a normal or high level of function, often have an uneven ability. Skills that can seem simple to others can be difficult to very difficult for these individuals, while on the other hand, they can be very gifted/ talented in other areas, such as science or information technology. They can struggle to pass one subject and reach significantly higher levels in others. 

Some people with ASD can both be withdrawn and uninterested in the outside world while others seek social interaction and try to have contact with others. Should they want social interaction, they often have difficulty understanding non-verbal signals such as facial expressions, body language and/ or gestures, i.e unable to read between the lines.These limitations can make it difficult to develop and maintain functioning social relationships in the longer term.

It is very common to find some sort of unusual language development or language comprehension. Some start to talk extremely early and can sometimes express themselves very differently than others; they can seem somewhat aloof to the outside and their practice of the language differs from the norm. Others may start talking late or not at all.

Many find it difficult to follow what is said in a conversation or to grasp the meaning of the conversation or instruction. Some talk a lot, loudly or quietly without flow in their language. 

The difficulties with social interaction can make it difficult for them in a conversation to incorporate the other's feelings and/ or interest.

It is very common when you have ASD, that you interpret the language literally, even if you suffer from a mild form of Asperger, you misunderstand jokes, usage of the words, and metaphors. 

Expressions such as "jump in the shower" or "hit the shower" or"the straw that broke the camels back" can then sound incomprehensible and completely without sense.

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Som vi nämnde under Asperger så faller även Autism under paraplybenämningen; AST.

Autism är en utvecklingsneurologisk funktionsnedsättning som påverkar hjärnans sätt att hantera information. 

Hur stor funktionsnedsättningen blir är väldigt olika från person till person. Det är vanligt att personer med autism samtidigt har en intellektuell funktionsnedsättning. 

Autism förekommer också med psykiska eller fysiska sjukdomar.


Vid autism hos barn och vuxna finns det svårigheter inom två områden:

  • Begränsningar i socialt samspel och kommunikation
  • Upprepande beteenden och begränsningar i intressen och aktiviteter.

Skillnader mellan Autism och Asperger.

Inlärningssvårigheter se olika ut. Högfungerande Autism kan liknas mer vid Asperger än en mer svår variant av autismtillståndet. 

Ett autismtillstånd kan även innebära större inlärningssvårigheter än vad personer med Asperger ofta har. 

Skillnaderna kan dock variera och gränserna mellan de två tillstånden kan vara väldigt diffusa, vilket medför att det finns olika åsikter om detta.

Likheter mellan tillstånden:

Det kan vara enklare att peka på likheterna mellan Aspergers och Autism. Några av dem är ofta följande: kommunikationssvårigheter (verbal och/eller ickeverbal sådan) och svårigheter med att utveckla kontakter människor emellan, svårigheter med föreställningsförmåga och svårt att avläsa sociala koder och beteendemönster hos människor. 

Observera dock att alla dessa symtom kan vara olika framträdande hos olika personer med dessa diagnoser

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